Research Base for Stepping Into Your Future
CAHSEE Stepping Into Your Future is grounded in research in the CAHSEE itself, test taking, the learning sciences, literacy and language arts, mathematics, and technology/online learning.
- Assessing CAHSEE:
- California Department of Education evaluations of the CAHSEE analyzed for information about target groups, and overall findings and recommendations. The CAHSEE Math and English blueprints were analyzed as were CAHSEE release items in order to identify the relationship of the content tested to the standards and strands which are to be tested. The project also consulted with others working in the field who had completed full analyses of the CAHSEE. Examples from these analyses include:
- Math: While standards tested are drawn from Grades 6 & 7 and Algebra 1, the majority of items reflect grade 7 standards.
- English Language Arts: While CAHSEE ELA tests 10 grade standards, the actual items reflect the lower end of each standard continuum (that is, what is able to be tested on what is primarily a multiple choice exam, with the exception of an essay). The reading level of most texts is 6th grade.
- Test Taking:
- Addressing 'missing links'; explicitly providing students with metacognitive links between concepts and how they look and sound in a test context, metacognitive instruction in test taking, strength-based assessment approaches. (e.g., Rochex, J.Y., 2006).
- Learning Sciences:
- Building on what students know, providing explanations in the context of a conceptual framework (clustering concepts), using a 'metacognitive' approach to help students take control of their own learning. (e.g., How People Learn, National Research Council, 2000)
- Using active reading, writing and thinking approaches (e.g., Stauffer, 1980), with additional research supporting use with second language learners (e.g., Nessel & Dixon, 1983; 2008).
- Interactive concept development using problem-solving and games (e.g., Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 2007).
- Technology and Online Learning:
- Hybrid delivery approach to build retention and sustainability, opportunities for social interaction, communication. (e.g., Brinkerhoff, J. & Koroghlanian, C., 2005; Bielman, V., Putney, L. & Strudler, N., 2003)
Selected References and Resources
Bielman, V., Putney, L. & Strudler, N., (2003). Constructing community in a postsecondary virtual classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(1), 119 - 144.
Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (Eds) (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. For Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academey Press.
Brinkerhoff, J. & Koroghlanian, C. (2005). Online students' expectations: Enhancing the fit between online students and course design. Journal of Educational Computing Research 36 (4), 383-393.
Dixon, C. & Nessel, D. (2001). Language Experience Approach. NY: Macmillan Education. HumRRO (2006). Year 7 Report. California Department of Education, http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/hs/evaluations.asp.
HumRRO (2007). 2007 Report. California Department of Education, http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/hs/evaluations.asp.
Lester, F. (2007). Second Handbook of Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 2nd edition. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
Nessel, D. & Dixon, C. (2008). Using the Language Experience Approach With English Language Learners: Strategies for Engaging Students and Developing Literacy 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press/Sage Publications.
Nessel, D. & Dixon, C. (1983). Language Experience Approach to Reading and Writing: LEA for ESL. San Francisco, CA: Alemany Press.
Rochex, J.Y. (2006). Social, methodological and theoretical issues regarding assessment: Lessons from a secondary analysis of PISA 2000 literacy tests. Review of Research in Education 30. American Educational Research Association.
Smart, K. & Cappel, J. (2006). Students perceptions of online learning: A comparative study. Journal of Information Technology Education 5, 201-219.
Stauffer, R. (1980). The Language Experience Approach to Reading, 2nd edition. NY: Harper Collins.
Evaluation Research Approach (Samples)
Castanheira, M., Crawford, T., Dixon, C., & Green, J. (2001). Interactional ethnography: An approach to studying the social construction of literate practices. J.J. Cumming & C.M. Wyatt-Smith, special issue of Linguistics and Education: Analyzing the Discourse Demands of the Curriculum.
Green, J., Camilli, G., & Elmore, P. (2006). Handbook of Complementary Methods in Education Research. For AERA by NY: Routledge.
Green, J., Dixon, C., & Zarharlick, A. (2003). Ethnography as a logic of inquiry. In J. Flood, S. B. Heath, & D. Lapp (Eds.), The Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Second Edition. NJ: Erlbaum & Associates (now Taylor & Francis - Routledge), 201-224.
Mitchell, C.J. (1984). Typicality and the case study. In R.F. Ellens (Ed.), Ethnographic research: A guide to general conduct. New York: Academic Press, 238-241.
Tuyay, S., Jennings, L., & Dixon, C. (1995). Classroom discourse and opportunities to learn: An ethnographic study of knowledge construction in a bilingual third grade classroom. Discourse Processes 19, 75-110.
U.S. Department of Education (2008). Evaluating Online Learning: Challenges and Strategies for Success. http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/academic/evalonline.
Zaharlick, A. & Green, J.L. (1991). Ethnographic research. In J. Flood, J. Jensen, D. Lapp & J. Squires (Eds), Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. NY: Macmillan, 205-225.